Servo Motor :-

A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity, and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. A Servo motor is a type of motor that can rotate with great precision. Normally this type of motor consists of a control circuit that provides feedback on the current position of the motor shaft, this feedback allows the servo motors to rotate with great precision. If you want to rotate an object at some specific angles or distance, then you use a servo motor.

Servo motor is just made up of a simple motor which runs through a servo mechanism. If motor is powered by a DC power supply then it is called DC servo motor, and if it is AC-powered motor then it is called AC servo motor. For this tutorial, we will be discussing only about the DC servo motor working.


Terminals of Servo Motor :-

Servo motors are DC motors with built-in feedback circuits so that the positions of their shaft can be controlled accurately. A servomotor is a closed-loop servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion and final position. “The input to its control is a signal representing the position commanded for the output shaft”. The control signal is either a Analog signal or Digital signal. These motors have three terminals: power(VCC), ground(GND), and control.


Working Mechanism of the Servo Motor :-

Basically, A servo motor consists of three parts. Those are :

  • Controlled device
  • Output sensor
  • Feedback system

It is a closed-loop system where it uses a positive feedback system to control motion and the final position of the shaft. Here the device is controlled by a feedback signal generated by comparing output signal and reference input signal. The servo motor is compact and lightweight and outputs high power. Rated Output Power: 200 W (1/4 HP) Motor Frame Size: 60 mm, Continuous Duty Region and Limited Duty Region.

A servo motor controls the current according to the state of the load. Servo motors come in many sizes and in three basic types. The three types include positional rotation, continuous rotation, and linear. Positional Rotation servos rotate 180 degrees. They also have stops in the gear mechanism to protect the output shaft from over-rotating. A servo motor controls the current according to the state of the load. However, servo motor is working in feedback mechanism, that it take the feedback signal from the input signal and the output signal. So that the rotation will comes into the action.

Principle Behind working of Servo Motor :-

A servo motor is an electromechanical device that produces torque and velocity based on the supplied current and voltage. A servo motor works as part of a closed loop system providing torque and velocity as commanded from a servo controller utilizing a feedback device to close the loopA servo motor is a part of a closed-loop system consisting of a motor, a gear system, a position sensor, and a control circuit. System consisting of both AC(Alteranting Current) and DC(Direct Current).

The motor is connected to the gear system, which reduces the motor speed, increases torque, and provides feedback to the potentiometer. This potentiometer converts the feedback signal into an electrical signal and feeds the information into the control circuit. The control circuit then decodes the signal and compares it with the desired position before it controls the motor’s rotation precisely to achieve the desired position.


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